Part I, Foreign Affairs in the 1950s
Decades before we had the pervasive evil of dick cheney forced upon us, there was john foster dulles, and his evil “twin”, allen dulles. Moderate republican President Dwight Eisenhower did a lot of great things domestically as President, and his status has grown significantly over the past three decades. However, his greatest failing was appointing john foster dulles as Secretary of State and pretty much turning over US Foreign policy to him. Another monstrous error was Eisenhower’s making allen dulles chief of the CIA, and giving him free reign to carry out the illegal and immoral deeds necessary to effectuate the foreign policy blueprints his brother created. Together they foisted a new kind of evil, not seen again until the bush-cheney years. Together they practiced economic imperialism, creating and implementing a foreign policy based on greed, with trails of dead bodies and overthrown governments a byproduct.
Freedom of Information Act,
“The military coup that overthrew Mossadeq [sic] and his National Front cabinet was carried out under CIA direction as an act of U.S. foreign policy, conceived and approved at the highest levels of government.”
What was important to john foster dulles and the world petroleum industry was not democracy in Iran, but rather the fact that Mosaddeq had nationalized the Iranian oil industry, threatening US, British, and world access to middle east oil. As was a burgeoning pattern, the rationale for US intervention in foreign governments during the 1950s was the threat of COMMUNISM. At the time, the official US policy was that Iran was “in danger” of “falling behind the iron curtain”.
The US, of course, had a great friend in the then powerless Shah, and the US-engineered and British-assisted coup resulted in the installation of the Shah as the leader of the new Iranian government, a position held until the the 1979 revolution, when power was instilled in the country’s religious leaders, the Ayatollahs, where it has remained, with only figurehead elected officials. After his return to power, the Shah installed pro-Westerner
Jersey and Standard Oil of New York), Standard Oil of California (now Chevron) and Texaco (now also part of Chevron), and it was again business as usual for the oil industry in Iran.
It was oil in Iran in 1953, and it was coffee in Guatemala in 1954. In the mid-1940s, the Guatemalan government of Juan Jose Arevalo had confiscated former German coffee plantations, and he abolished forced labor. But the big changes came under the presidency of former general Jacobo Arbenz Guzman in the early 1950s. He passed the Law of Agrarian Reform, giving Guatemalan workers rights they had never before enjoyed, including widespread land ownership of the divided-up former coffee plantations. The most powerful entity in the area was, however, the US corporate behemoth, United Fruit Company, which was seeing profits dwindle under the reforms. john foster dulles had previously served as legal counsel for United Fruit, and brother allen has been a company director. The brothers dulles conceived “Operation Success”, convinced Ike it was a great idea, and with a rallying cry that Guzman and his government were all communists, rammed through a peaceful overthrow, through the Organization of American States, and the hand-picked choice of the CIA, General Carlos Castillo Armas was installed as the new President.
In true dulles-esq fashion, Pres. Armas reversed all of the agrarian reforms, took back the land for the government, restored the secret police, outlawed political parties and labor unions, and United Fruit was back in business.
Today, in the US, things are not very different, at least where there is gop rule. See Part II, later today.